Net financial debt plus equity
Average values are calculated on the basis of quarterly data.
Cash flow after investments
Cash flow from operating activities less cash flow from investing activities.
Net financial debt divided by total equity.
Earnings per share
Profit/loss for the year divided by the weighted average number of shares outstanding, adjusted for buy-back of shares, if any, during the year. Diluted EPS means that any diluting effect from outstanding call options has been taken into account.
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortisation and change in value of forests, excl. items affecting comparability.
Equity expressed as a percentage of total assets.
Non-current and current financial receivables and cash and cash equivalents.
Items affecting comparability
Used to illustrate how income measures were affected by events outside normal business operations, such as impairment losses, disposals, fire and restructuring.
Net financial debt
Non-current and current financial liabilities and pension provisions, less financial assets.
Capital employed plus the net sum of deferred tax liability and deferred tax assets, which corresponds to non-current assets plus working capital. Average values are calculated on the basis of quarterly data.
Operating profit/loss (excl. items affecting comparability) expressed as a percentage of net sales.
Profit before net financial items and tax.
Return on capital employed
Operating profit/loss (excl. items affecting comparability) expressed as a percentage of average capital employed.
Return on equity
Profit for the year expressed as a percentage of average equity, calculated on the basis of quarterly data.
Return on operating capital
Operating profit/loss (excl. items affecting comparability) expressed as a percentage of average operating capital.
A co-location of different operations for more efficient use of raw materials and energy, amongst other benefits.
Renewable fuels (such as wood, black liquor, bark and tall oil). Fuels that do not generate any net emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, since the quantity of carbon dioxide formed during combustion is part of the carbon cycle.
Bulk is a measure of the volume of the paper. Paper with the same basis weight may have a different thickness, depending on the bulk of the paper. A high bulk indicates a thick but relatively lightweight paper.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon is the building block of life and is part of all living things. Biogenic carbon dioxide is released when biological material decays or wood is burned. Fossil carbon dioxide is released when coal, oil or natural gas is burned.
Chemical Oxygen Demand. A measure of the amount of oxygen needed for the complete decomposition of organic material in water.
Folding Box Board. Multi-layered paperboard made from mechanical and chemical pulp.
Fillers, such as ground marble and kaolin clay, are used to give the paper bulk and make it more uniform in structure and brighter.
Fuels based on carbon and hydrogen compounds from sediment or sedimentary bedrock – mainly coal, oil and natural gas.
Global Reporting Initiative. International cooperation body, in which many different groups of stakeholders in society have drawn up global guidelines for how companies are to report on activities encompassed by the umbrella term of sustainable development.
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. EU environmental legislation about integrated, individual testing and supervision of major industrial companies.
An international energy management systems standard that provides a framework for energy efficiency measures.
An international standard for quality management systems. Primarily aimed at companies and organisations that wish to improve two aspects of their operations, i.e. to ensure more satisfied customers and lower costs.
An international standard for environmental management. Important principles in ISO 14001 include regular environmental audits and a gradual increase in the requirements.
m3growing stock, solid over bark
Cubic metre growing stock, solid over bark. The volume of tree stems, incl. bark, from stump to top. Generally used as a measure for growing forest.
Cubic metre solid volume under bark. The actual volume (no gaps between the logs) of whole stems or stemwood excl. bark and treetops. Generally used as a measure for harvested wood.
An element contained in wood. Nitrogen emissions to water may cause eutrophication.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
Gases that consist of nitrogen and oxygen that are formed in combustion. In moist air, nitrogen oxides are converted into nitric acid, which creates acid rain. Nitrogen oxides also have a fertilising effect.
A series of international standards regarding a management system for health and safety. The management system includes monitoring, evaluating and reporting on health and safety work.
Particles of ash formed in incineration of bark or liquor, for example.
An element contained in wood. Excessive phosphorus in the water may cause over-fertilisation (eutrophication) and oxygen consumption.
Solid Bleached Board. Multi-layer paperboard made from bleached chemical pulp.
Chemical pulp that is produced by boiling wood under high pressure and at a high temperature together with white liquor (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide).
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
A gas consisting of sulphur and oxygen that is formed in combustion of sulphur-containing fuels, such as oil. In contact with moist air, sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphuric acid, which creates acid rain.
Waterborne substances consisting of fibres and particles that can largely be removed using a fine mesh filter.
By-product of the sulphate pulp process used for making soft soap, paints, biodiesel and other products.
Thermo-mechanical pulp. Obtained by heating spruce chips and then grinding them in refiners.