Ships operated under long-term charters have accounted for much of Holmen's transport activity for several years. Capacity utilisation on the ships is high. Rail is mainly used for distributing products from Sweden to southern parts of Europe and to a certain extent also for incoming raw materials. Trucks are the main mode of transport for saw logs and pulpwood. Trucks are also generally the only option for transporting products from the port terminals in Europe to customers. The same also applies to distribution over short distances from mills to customers.
In 2018 a decision was taken on investments at Braviken Sawmill to increase production from 2020. A contributory factor in making this decision was the fact that Holmen owns forest and is therefore able to control the flows of forest raw material. In addition, there are plans for Holmen to have its own train, which we will be able to run to suit our own needs, as we do our ships. The train will initially transport pulpwood from our own forest north of Braviken, cutting the import of pulpwood from the Baltic States. The log-carrying capacity of the train will gradually be increased so that Braviken Sawmill’s growing raw material need can be met by our own forest. Demand for pulpwood shipments by sea will thus decrease over the long term, which in turn will lead to lower emissions to air of substances such as fossil carbon dioxide.
Efforts to reduce the transport impact
Holmen Skog has long been taking active measures to minimise transport activity by flow optimisation and the exchange of wood with other forest companies. Modern optimisation tools are used in planning, resulting in shorter transport distances and investigation of environmentally efficient and cost-effective transport combinations.
Holmen Skog works in partnership with the rest of the forest industry on technical developments that make forestry more efficient and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. Studies into longer timber trucks and increased loads show that emissions can be cut by around 20 per cent. Holmen Skog is involved in the national ETT (One More Pile) demo project aimed at testing heavier timber trucks in real-life operational circumstances. The project aims to reduce the number of transport runs, cut diesel consumption and reduce emissions of fossil carbon dioxide. An additional aim is to reduce transport costs.
In the forest industry there is also broad collaboration on efficient, fossil-free transport, partly through electrification and automation.
2018 saw the introduction of the new road class BK4, which permits 74-tonne trucks. The Swedish Transport Administration is now gradually opening a BK4 road network with the aim of ultimately converting all of today’s BK1 road network to BK4. The Swedish Transport Administration and the industry disagree, however, on the date by which this should be attained. In some parts of the country, such as Västerbotten and parts of Västernorrland, Holmen was nevertheless able to start benefitting from a BK4 road network in 2019.
Holmen Skog is working to switch the transport of logs from road to rail, and intends to do so where this is possible and cost-effective. Our rail transport has undergone major development in 2019 and this will continue in 2020.
Holmen Skog has set a new environmental target for our fossil emissions from logging and wood transport to be cut by 50 per cent by 2025 (base year 2014).
For some years ago the extent of Holmen's transport activity and the associated emissions of fossil carbon dioxide were calculated. The aim of the investigation was to survey fossil carbon dioxide emissions, which each producing unit within the Group, gives rise to in transportation within Europe of finished products to customers as well as in inward deliveries of wood, pulp, recovered paper and chemicals. Europe is understood here to mean EU27, according to the method description of the industry organisation the Swedish Forestry Industries Federation for the calculation of emissions in Swedish forestry industry.
Total transport activity amounted to around 4 billion tonne-km, split across modes of transport as follows: rail 9 per cent, road 46 per cent and sea 45 per cent. Transport activity was made up of just over 70 per cent outward deliveries of products and 20 per cent inward deliveries of timber. The remaining approximately 10 per cent comprises inward deliveries of pulp, chemicals, etc.
A complementary investigation was carried out concerning emissions of carbon dioxide from goods transport outside the EU, so called overseas transport.
Based on the result of this study, product development over the years has formed the basis for calculating emissions of fossil carbon dioxide in 2019. Emissions have been calculated at 233 000 tonnes. Here, this includes transport of input goods and finished products. This is a somewhat lower emissions figure compared with 2018, which is due to a slight reduction in production of paper in 2019.
A new transport study will be carried out in spring 2020. Depending on the result of this study, there may be a need to set a Group-wide climate target for transport.