Ships operated under long-term charters have accounted for much of Holmen's transport activity for several years. Capacity utilisation on the ships is high. Rail is mainly used for distributing products from Sweden to southern parts of Europe and to a certain extent also for incoming raw materials. Trucks are the main mode of transport for saw logs and pulpwood. Trucks are also generally the only option for transporting products from the port terminals in Europe to customers. The same also applies to distribution over short distances from mills to customers.
Efforts to reduce the transport impact
Holmen Skog has long been taking active measures to minimise transport activity by flow optimisation and the exchange of wood with other forest companies. Modern optimisation tools are used in planning, resulting in shorter transport distances and investigation of environmentally efficient and cost-effective transport combinations.
Holmen Skog works in partnership with the rest of the forest industry on technical developments that make forestry more efficient and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. Studies into longer timber trucks and increased loads show that emissions can be cut by around 20 per cent. Holmen Skog is involved in the national ETT (One More Pile) demo project aimed at testing heavier timber trucks in real-life operational circumstances. The project aims to reduce the number of transport runs, cut diesel consumption and reduce emissions of fossil carbon dioxide. An additional aim is to reduce transport costs.
2017 saw major progress in the forest industry's work to promote heavier vehicles, when the government decided to introduce a new road class, BK4, which permits 74-tonne trucks. However, the initial road network that the Swedish Transport Administration will be opening to 74-tonne vehicles in 2018 is very limited. Holmen will therefore not immediately benefit from the new road class, but we are working with the Swedish Transport Administration's viability groups to make it happen as quickly as possible.
Holmen Skog is working to switch the transport of logs from road to rail, and intends to do so where this is possible and cost-effective. We also require our haulage contractors to use blended fuel that contains fossil-free fuels.
Holmen Skog has set an environmental target to cut emissions of fossil carbon dioxide from logging and timber transport by 20 per cent by 2020 in comparison with 2014. For the period 2014–2017, emissions are down by around 15 per cent for logging and by around 10 per cent for transport.
The extent of Holmen's transport activity in 2015 and the associated emissions of fossil carbon dioxide were calculated in 2016. The aim of the investigation was to survey fossil carbon dioxide emissions, which each producing unit within the Group, gives rise to in transportation within Europe of finished products to customers as well as in inward deliveries of wood, pulp, recovered paper and chemicals. Europe is understood here to mean EU27, according to the method description of the industry organisation the Swedish Forestry Industries Federation for the calculation of emissions in Swedish forestry industry.
Total transport activity amounted to around 4 billion tonne-km, split across modes of transport as follows: rail 9 per cent, road 46 per cent and sea 45 per cent. Transport activity is made up of 72 per cent outward deliveries of products and 20 per cent inward deliveries of timber. The remaining 8 per cent consisted of inward deliveries of recovered paper, chemicals and pulp and paperboard.
Emissions of fossil carbon dioxide for 2015 totalled 173 000 tonnes. Holmen sold the unit in Madrid at the end of the first half of 2016. Based on emissions for 2015, emissions from transport in 2016 were estimated to total around 165 000 tonnes.
Of these emissions, 44 000 tonnes related to timber transport to the Swedish mills.
Holmen Skog has set an environmental target of emissions of fossil carbon dioxide from logging and timber transport decreasing by 20 per cent by 2020 in comparison with 2014.
A complementary investigation was carried out concerning emissions of carbon dioxide from goods transport outside the EU. Emissions from overseas transport was estimated at around 72 000 tonnes.
Altogether, this meant that Holmen's emissions of fossil carbon dioxide from transport of inputs and finished products totalled just over 235 000 tonnes in 2016.
Based on a study from 2015 and calculations for 2016, emissions from transport for 2017 were estimated to be 241 000 tonnes.